Paiche Prehistoric fish
Paiche The ancient inhabitants of the Amazon
Paiche Deep in the heart of the Amazon rainforest, in the remote wilderness of Peru’s Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, there exists a dedicated guardian named Jairo Natorce. His daily routine involves keeping watch over a river teeming with piranhas and alligators, where the untamed forces of nature reign supreme. His mission is singular and profound – to protect one of the most astounding and ancient inhabitants of the Amazon: the colossal prehistoric fish known as paiche.
Natorce has been on this noble duty for over two decades. He is one of the park rangers charged with safeguarding the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, a vast expanse that covers more than two million hectares of land, a domain half the size of Denmark or Switzerland. This reserve, established in 1972, was primarily dedicated to preserving the arapaima gigas, better known in the Amazon as paiche or pirarucu – the second-largest river fish in the world.
Paiche is not just an ordinary fish; it’s a creature steeped in legend and folklore, rooted in Brazilian mythology. According to the myth, the paiche has its origins in the story of Pirarucu, a fierce warrior whose extreme cruelty led to his punishment by the gods. He was condemned to a life in which he would be hunted and tormented by storms, thunder, and lightning. In a desperate bid to escape his fate, Pirarucu sought refuge in the Amazon’s waters, where he would undergo a dramatic transformation into a massive fish adorned with thick red scales.
This legendary paiche can grow to astounding proportions, reaching weights of up to 200 kilograms and lengths of up to 3 meters. It belongs to the family Arapaimidae, specifically the superorder Osteoglossomorpha, a group of bony fish that traces its origins back to the early Cretaceous period, a time when dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus rex roamed the Earth. Evidence of paiche’s prehistoric existence can be found in fossil deposits located as far away as the U.S. state of Wyoming, as reported by the Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana.
Paiche has played an essential role in the Amazon’s culinary traditions for generations. The firm, white-fleshed meat of the fish was historically preserved through salting and drying, much like salt cod, and was commonly steamed or included in regional dishes like rice or yuca-based meals, soups, and stews. Although this nutritious and exquisite delicacy held a special place in Amazonian diets, paiche’s existence remained largely unknown to the outside world for many years.
However, since 2004, paiche has been making its way into Peruvian haute cuisine, thanks to the pioneering efforts of chef Pedro Miguel Schiaﬃno. It was in that year that he opened his first restaurant, Malabar, in Lima. Subsequently, he opened another Amazonian-inspired restaurant, ámaZ, in 2012. Schiaffino’s innovative approach to cuisine revolutionized the way Peruvians and the world saw paiche. Leading Peruvian chefs followed suit, incorporating paiche into their menus. Today, this magnificent fish can be found on the plates of esteemed restaurants such as Maido, Central, Mayta, and La Rosa Náutica, where Schiaffino is currently the head chef.
Schiaffino’s passion for the Amazon and its products is deeply rooted. He has dedicated over 15 years to researching Amazonian ingredients and has been a pioneer in introducing rainforest elements into his dishes. He traveled extensively, venturing into the remotest of communities to establish connections with local producers. His mission transcends the realm of cuisine; it’s about establishing harmony between nature, those who harvest its bounties, and traditional Amazonian ingredients, paiche being a prime example.
Paiche’s appeal is not just rooted in its remarkable history but also in its culinary versatility. As Schiaffino attests, “The paiche has delicious, white, semi-fatty meat with few bones, making it highly versatile for cooking.” Schiaffino has crafted a range of dishes featuring paiche, from paiche ceviche to grilled paiche, paiche ribs, and paiche with ají negro (a spicy fermented sauce) or tucupí, a thick sauce made from yuca brava (a plant once considered poisonous, now transformed into a dietary staple). This transformation of paiche from a hidden treasure of the Amazon to a star ingredient in high-end cuisine is a testament to the rich culinary tapestry that Peru has to offer.
Bringing paiche from the Amazon to the bustling city of Lima was no small feat. It required innovation and infrastructure. Traditionally, transporting paiche from the reserve to Lima posed challenges. Ice was crucial to keeping the fish fresh during its journey. To obtain ice, fishermen had to make a ten-hour boat trip to Iquitos, followed by a two-hour road journey, which significantly increased the cost of the fish. Moreover, the rudimentary transportation methods and poor water quality further complicated the task.
In response to these challenges, a significant breakthrough occurred in 2017. The non-governmental organization Despensa Amazónica, in collaboration with other private and public entities, initiated the construction of a solar-powered ice plant. Located just 90 minutes by boat from Lake Yarina, where sustainable paiche fishing takes place, this ice plant has become a game-changer. It not only ensures the safe transport of paiche from the reserve to Iquitos but also plays a pivotal role in its distribution to Lima’s most exclusive restaurants. This technological advancement has expanded the reach of paiche, bringing it to top-end Peruvian restaurants worldwide as the global appreciation for Peruvian cuisine grows.
However, the impact of this initiative extends beyond the culinary world. It has become apparent to Despensa Amazónica that by creating markets and enhancing the technical and operational capabilities of local communities, a powerful engine for social change has been set in motion. Ventures supporting a sustainable paiche industry empower locals to secure their food supply and provide a stable source of income for their families. Simultaneously, this approach steers communities away from more prevalent – and often more lucrative – destructive activities in the region, such as illegal mining, logging, and wildlife trafficking, which pose significant threats to their lives and the environment.
The Amazon rainforest, spanning nine countries and occupying 60% of Peru, is vital for the planet’s climate stability. However, it faces considerable threats to its preservation. In 2020 alone, Peru lost a staggering 203,000 hectares of forest due to factors like agricultural expansion, illegal timber trafficking, and illegal mining for valuable natural resources such as gold.
Paiche itself has faced challenges stemming from overfishing and a lack of regulations to ensure compliance with minimum catch sizes and closed seasons. Nonetheless, ongoing efforts are aimed at addressing these issues.
On the shores of Lake Yarina, a group of 12 local fishermen has embraced a movement dedicated to rejuvenating the health of the Amazon. These individuals are part of fishing cooperatives that prioritize sustainable fishing practices. They employ canoes and nets to catch fish in the traditional way and diligently adhere to fishing seasons and minimum catch sizes. Moreover, they are committed to safeguarding their ecosystem at all costs, including reporting illegal fishermen involved in wildlife trafficking and deforestation.
“In these years of work, we have developed a model that we believe is scalable and transferable,” says Andrea Ortiz de Zevallos, the managing director of Despensa Amazónica. “Our idea is to create and find as many market opportunities as possible, so that sustainable activities become sufficient to support local economies. This could prove wrong the idea that the only way to generate income in the Amazon is through extractive or illegal activities.”
This transformation has brought much-needed company to Jairo Natorce in his quest to protect the Amazon. A growing community of passionate individuals has joined him, driven by a shared commitment to preserving the rainforest and its remarkable biodiversity. The increased interest in paiche represents not just a culinary achievement but a testament to the harmonious integration of nature, traditional cuisine, and sustainable practices. As Andrea Ortiz de Zevallos emphasizes, “Our projects support local communities to develop and strengthen sustainable value chains and ultimately integrate their products into Peruvian and global cuisine.”
For Chef Schiaﬃno, these efforts represent a profound sense of fulfillment. “I find joy in proving that a product can reach a restaurant in the best conditions,” he says. “The most emotional part, which also pushes me to keep going, is that a family or an entire community can significantly improve their livelihood. From a personal point of view, traveling and seeing this journey is just beautiful.”
In conclusion, paiche is not merely a fish; it’s a symbol of the Amazon’s resilience, the heart of Peru’s culinary revival, and a beacon of hope for the communities inhabiting this extraordinary land. Its journey from the depths of the Amazon to the world’s finest restaurants exemplifies the power of sustainable practices to create positive change, protect the environment, and provide local communities with sustainable livelihoods. As the rich culinary traditions of Peru continue to spread globally, paiche stands as a testament to the harmonious relationship between humans and the natural world. It’s a story of preservation, innovation, and culinary delight, where the protection of the Amazon’s treasures goes hand in hand with sharing their bounty with the world.